Section I Use of English
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
The idea that plants have some degree of consciousness first took root in the early 2000s; the term “plant neurobiology” was ____1____ around the notion that some aspects of plant behavior could be ____2____ to intelligence in animals. ____3____ plants lack brains, the firing of electrical signals in their stems and leaves nonetheless triggered responses that ____4____ consciousness, researchers previously reported.
But such an idea is untrue, according to a new opinion article. Plant biology is complex and fascinating, but it ____5____ so greatly from that of animals that so-called ____6____ of plants’ intelligence is inconclusive, the authors wrote.
Beginning in 2006, some scientists have ____7____ that plants possess neuron-like cells that interact with hormones and neurotransmitters, ____8____ “a plant nervous system, ____9____ to that in animals,” said lead study author Lincoln Taiz, “They ____10____ claimed that plants have ‘brain-like command centers’ at their root tips.”
This ____11____ makes sense if you simplify the workings of a complex brain, ____12____ it to an array of electrical pulses; cells in plants also communicate through electrical signals. ____13____, the signaling in a plant is only ____14____ similar to the firing in a complex animal brain, which is more than “a mass of cells that communicate by electricity,” Taiz said.
“For consciousness to evolve, a brain with a threshold ____15____ of complexity and capacity is required,” he ____16____.” Since plants don’t have nervous systems, the ____17____ that they have consciousness are effectively zero.”
And what’s so great about consciousness, anyway? Plants can’t run away from ____18____, so investing energy in a body system which ____19____ a threat and can feel pain would be a very ____20____ evolutionary strategy, according to the article.
1. [A] coined [B] discovered [C] collected [D] issued
2. [A] attributed [B] directed [C] compared [D] confined
3. [A] Unless [B] When [C] Once [D] Though
4. [A] coped with [B] consisted of [C] hinted at [D] extended to
5. [A] suffers [B] benefits [C] develops [D] differs
6. [A] acceptance [B] evidence [C] cultivation [D] creation
7. [A] doubted [B] denied [C] argued [D] requested
8. [A] adapting [B] forming [C] repairing [D] testing
9. [A] analogous [B] essential [C] suitable [D] sensitive
10. [A] just [B] ever [C] still [D] even
11. [A] restriction [B] experiment [C] perspective [D] demand
12. [A] attaching [B] reducing [C] returning [D] exposing
13. [A] However [B] Moreover [C] Therefore [D] Otherwise
14. [A] temporarily [B] literally [C] superficially [D] imaginarily
15. [A] list [B] level [C] label [D] load
16. [A] recalled [B] agreed [C] questioned [D] added
17. [A] chances [B] risks [C] excuses [D] assumptions
18. [A] danger [B] failure [C] warning [D] control
19. [A] represents [B] includes [C] reveals [D] recognizes
20. [A] humble [B] poor [C] practical [D] easy